Direct visualization of the digestive tract with lighted instruments is referred to as gastrointestinal endoscopy. Your physician has advised you of your need to have this type of examination. The following information is presented to help you understand the reasons for, & possible risks of these procedures.


ESOPHAGOGASTRODUODENOSCOPY (EGD): Also called an Upper Endoscopy is a procedure that allows the physician to look at the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and the duodenum (small intestine). You will be given a sedative, and a local anesthetic may be sprayed into your mouth to suppress the gag reflex when the endoscope is inserted. A mouth guard will be inserted to protect your teeth as well as the endoscope. Dentures must be removed. The procedure involves swallowing a thin, flexible, lighted tube. The endoscope allows the physician to view the inside of this area of the body, as well as to insert instruments through the scope. Biopsies, brushings, and dilatation of strictures may be necessary while you are asleep.


FLEXIBLE SIGMOIDOSCOPY:  Sigmoidoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the physician to look at the inside of the lower portion of the large intestine. It is helpful in identifying the causes of diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. A short, flexible, lighted scope is inserted into the intestine through the rectum. Next, the patient will feel some pressure as air is gently introduced through the scope to expand the colon and help the doctor see well. The doctor then moves the scope as far as needed to examine the lower colon. As the scope is slowly removed, the lining of the bowel is carefully examined. A hollow channel in the center of the scope allows for the passage of forceps for taking a biopsy if needed.


COLONOSCOPY:   Colonoscopy is a procedure that allows the physician to view the entire length of the large intestine, and can often help identify abnormal growths, inflamed tissue, ulcers, and bleeding. It involves inserting a flexible lighted tube, in through the rectum up into the colon. The colonoscope allows the physician to see the lining of the colon, take photographs, as well as treat some problems that are discovered and remove tissue for further examination.


HEMORRHOID BANDING:   Elastic bands are applied to hemorrhoids to control bleeding.



The following are the risks of these procedures:


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